Cancer is a significant risk to human health. Immunotherapy, including CAR-T cell therapy and immune checkpoint blockade, are more effective clinical cancer treatments; however, the population benefiting from these immunotherapies is still limited. Further research is needed to improve the immune activity of T cells and expand the beneficiary population.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a coenzyme in redox reactions that can directly and indirectly affect key cellular functions such as metabolic pathways, DNA repair, chromatin remodelling, and cellular senescence.

Anti-ageing cocktails combining different compounds with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) are becoming increasingly common. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of these combinations in increasing NAD+, an important molecule that decreases with age in different organs and tissues. Declining NAD+ levels with age are associated with many age-related diseases, and there are differences in NAD+ levels in different organs and tissue types. Along these lines, combining molecules that target individual organs may be the most important means of treating specific age-related diseases.

According to the study, combining NMN with resveratrol increased NAD+ levels in the heart and skeletal muscle of mice significantly more than NMN alone. in addition, combining NMN with ginsenosides almost doubled NAD+ levels in lung tissue compared to NMN alone. These results suggest the use of NMN combination therapy to increase NAD+ levels in specific organs to treat age-related diseases that affect them.

To find out how NMN and resveratrol - an antioxidant linked to longer life spans - synergistically affect NAD+ levels in different organ systems, the researchers provided adult mice with oral doses of both substances. The team found that NMN and resveratrol acting together increased NAD+ levels in heart and skeletal muscle by 1.59-fold and 1.72-fold, respectively, after six hours of treatment. These findings suggest that a treatment regimen of NMN plus resveratrol could be used for age-related conditions that affect the heart or skeletal muscle, such as cardiovascular disease or frailty.

Another combination studied by the team was NMN and ginsenosides - a class of molecules derived from Korean red ginseng root. The researchers found to that NMN and ginsenosides synergistically increased NAD+ levels almost twofold in lung tissue. These results suggest that combining NMN with ginsenosides could be a targeted treatment for age-related diseases of the lung, such as scar tissue accumulation (lung tissue fibrosis).